Gender differences in the way of insertion on the labor force have been an important topic of study in Labor Economics since the late 1960s.

Some stylized facts make it possible to characterize the most fragile female insertion in the job market: their unemployment rates are higher, they are more often in the informal economy, in unpaid jobs, and in self-employment in production for own consumption.

 

It is also worth noting the segregation of women in sectors and occupations that pay less and have lower social status, even when they are, on average, more educated than men, as is the case in Brazil. This phenomenon is accompanied by the glass ceiling effect - the invisible barrier women face to ascend in their careers, which results in their underrepresentation in the top ranks of management in major corporations.

All these facts combined help to understand one of the most striking characteristics of the labor market: the pronounced gender wage gap in the majority of countries, which has consequences on issues such as poverty and income distribution.